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This chapter of the dissertation focuses on the most fundamental components of the thesis, which are very vital to set the direction and objective of the study. The major topics covered in this chapter are background for the opting this research topic, objectives of the project, the purpose of the research and the hypothesis for verifying the results of the research.
Information Technology Infrastructure or ITIL and the Project in Controlled Environment Two or Prince-2 are two very important standard frameworks for planning, executing and monitoring the projects and the services respectively. In the standard form of framework, Prince2 provides with a detailed procedure of best practices to manage the entire project while ITIL is a service development and operational framework of best practices (Hinde, 2009). Prince2 details a holistic approach to the whole project with with help of different procedural steps to manage the project in a controlled environment so that the project does not go over time and over budget limits; (Hinde, 2009) further suggests that ITIL is a multiple step framework for development of an effective and productive IT service that produces the best value for the customer. The presentation delivered by (Dorst, 2006) in ISACA Perth Annual Conference suggests that for a better business results based on IT governance would only be effectively achieved when the ‘BUILD’ is properly done by Prince2 framework and the ‘RUN’ of the services is implemented on the basis of the standard framework of the ITIL service management Lifecycle. It is further suggested in (Dorst, 2006 presentation) that both ITIL and Prince2 are developed by OGC and they work very effectively for the how to develop and run the project/services. The IT governance is very important for a better business bottom line as per (Dorst, 2006) and IT governance can be achieved with the help of ITIL process of continual service improvement or CSI. Although, Prince2 does not cover the long-term smooth and effective operation of the services, it covers many other aspects of the project/services that can be helpful in producing the best value for the customers; similarly, ITIL covers many aspects of the development of an IT service that can be implemented into the project management procedure offered by Prince2 framework for more accurate and productive results of the whole project (Hinde, 2009). Prince2 has a set of the procedures that target to achieve the successful completion of the project within the time and budget limits while the ITIL focuses on continual service improvement with the help of the CSI stage of service management life cycle along with the on-time delivery of the project. If we look investigate the processes of the both standards for managing the projects and services, we would be able to understand that, there are a few shortcomings in both of the standards for a perfect delivery of Project/service – these both standards, if implemented in complimentary to each other, would produce the perfect results. But, how this can be beneficial and what are the grounds, which help to make consolidated procedure or approach to project/service management, are a few questions, which would be researched in this dissertation. In such situations, we can say that project management is a larger standard for planning, executing, monitoring and closing a project while the IT service development based on service management Lifecycle is a part of the entire domain of the project-management with some additional features that can be more useful if implemented into the planning of the fundamental project procedures. The procedures of the project management based on Prince2 guide the project manager and its team to use and manage and optimize the available resources like human capital, budget, time, energy and space available under the jurisdiction of an entire project. The ITIL standard framework guides the teams for effective assessment and planning of the resources for developing and operating an efficient and attractive service that can create value to the customers and the monitoring of the results of the service for taking suitable measures is an additional step of the ITIL framework. For a perfect business bottom line, an IT governance is strongly required to achieve the goals of the company and for achieving the goals of the company the integration of ITIL, COBit, Prince2 and Sigma Six are very important as per the presentation at the Perth Conference delivered by (Dorst, 2006).
There are many standards for efficient project management in the world that are being used in different companies across the globe; among these standards PMBoK, ITIL, Prince2, MSP, COBIT, P3M3 and Agile are important to mention. All these standards possess numerous merits for better project management, but still, many project managers believe that there are some shortcomings in all these standards that do not allow these standards to qualify for a comprehensive standard for project management. Recently, many project managers, management experts and researchers have started researching about the mixed form of standard that combine two or more project management standards to overcome the shortcomings of using one single standard. Many researches are being carried out to study the combined impact of PMI-ITIL, PMI-Prince2 and Prince2-ITIL methods. This thesis is one of such efforts to establish that both the ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure) and the Prince2 (PRoject IN Controlled Environment) are not competitors to each other but they are complimentary to each other. A research guide written by (Siegelaub, 2009) suggest that Prince2 does not cover all the knowledge area required for robust project planning and it needs some useful help from PMBoK project management tools for better project development results. But, that does not mean that Prince2 is useless as compared to PMBoK – (Siegelaub, 2009) suggests that Prince2 offers a more smooth procedural and stepwise mechanism to project management as compared to PMBoK. In the concluding phase of (Siegelaub, 2009), he concludes that using two prominent project management methodologies (PMBoK & Prince2) together provides the most desirable business results in the domain of project management. According to the case study of a company conducted by (Scott, 2010) suggests that there are many areas where Prince2 project management tools supported the IT infrastructure library or ITIL these areas are business justification, management by stages, lesson learned and risk management. Meanwhile (Scott, 2010) case study reveals that ITIL supports the effective use of Prince2 management procedure on many grounds like Startup of the project, communication, balance in quality against cost, and plugging a gap. Thus, the case study conducted by (Scott, 2010) proved practically that OGC-OGC combination of ITIL and Prince2 produced wonderful results and they are complimentary to each other. The project observed some conflicts but the overall performance was good as per the report by (Scott, 2010). Like the case study by (Scott, 2010), many other companies are also using the Prince2-ITIL combination for getting better project results. Similarly, there are many other organizations in the world that use PMBoK-ITIL approach for their project/service management. This new trend of combining the different standards and framework is being implemented in many projects and organizations by their respective project managers. Here, the main goal of this thesis is to investigate the level of the suitability of implementing both approaches in the projects.
There are many project management and service management standards and frameworks that are being used in the domain of different industries especially in IT industry and service sectors. Among these standards, PMBoK, ITIL, Prince2, Six Sigma, COBIT, Agile and others are the prominent ones. Each and every management framework has its merits and drawbacks – these drawbacks create some sort of conflicts on the project flow or the smoothness of the project activities and thus, the entire project digresses from its predefined goals or objectives. Many project managers have now embarked on a new methodology of project management, which uses the power of two or three frameworks to cover any kind of flaw or drawback of a single standard. These managers opt different combination of methodologies like OGC-OGC, OGC-PMI and others. This research report would deal with the OGC-OGC approach of project management and service management; in this methodology, the complementary areas of ITIL and Prince2 framework would be studied to establish a link between these two frameworks to interlock both of the frameworks for the achievement of better business bottom lines. The drawbacks of the Prince2 project management procedure would be patched up with the help of best practices and tools offered by ITIL service management Lifecycle.
1.3 Purpose of Research
The modern frameworks of project management or service management have taken high importance in the development and operation of new services, applications and project in all domains of the modern industry. The impact of these frameworks is very pervasive in terms of achieving the objectives and the goals of a company or business entity. These frameworks help to keep the projects and services smooth while development of the same and then very customer oriented while in operation. So, there are two major aspects of services or the projects one is the BUILD and the other one is RUN. Another very important aspect that govern the entire business processes is the governance of the IT services, which creates a supervisory or monitoring of the smoothness and identifies the snags of the systems and refers to the respective section for rectification or ramification. The entire process of development and operation of the business service is really an encompassing mechanism that involves different knowledge bases, frameworks and standards. According to the investigative paper done by (Tudor, 2007), ITIL, DSDM and Prince2 frameworks can work together because their nature of implementation is overlapping. There are many projects/service management activities and processes (collectively key disciplines) that overlap within the jurisdiction of each other like a project plan, risk management, configuration management, change control, business case and a few others, according to the technical article by (Tudor, 2007). This article (Tudor, 2007) further describes that there are different kinds of scenarios of project development and integration of existing applications or services in which, it is very important to take care of the availability management function for maintaining the smoothness of the project flow. At the conclusion of her article (Tudor, 2007) suggests that all ITIL, Prince2 and DSDM are the mature frameworks of present day industry; they possess very exciting features for fulfilling better requirements of any business but they are not likely to provide the desired 100% results if they are used in isolation. Meanwhile, (Tudor, 2007) concludes that if they are used together for controlling and benefiting from the best practices of these frameworks, a substantial set of benefits can be achieved, which are desirable for any business entity. Likewise, in the case study conducted by (Scott, 2010) also verifies that both the ITIL and the Prince2 project/service management frameworks should be used in collaboration rather in isolation to produce the most efficient and effective results of the business. On the basis of these researches and notions from the experts in the industry, it is clear that the collaborative approach of different standard frameworks is required for achieving the desirable bottom line. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate that how ITIL and Prince2 are interrelated with each other and how much impact can they leave on the project or the service management of a company if they are used in collaboration or together in the development and operation of the projects and the services respectively. The research would be based on the assumption or the hypothesis that the impact of using both frameworks is very high and desirable; this hypothesis would be further investigated and verified with the help of different kinds of research studies that have been done in the domain of project management for establishing the relationship between different frameworks related to project management and service management life cycles. The details and results of those researches would be verified with the help of a focus group discussion based on some measurable questions. These questions would be discussed and the feedback would be achieved from different managers and experts of this domain of industry. These questions would mostly move around the drawbacks and merits of different frameworks popular in the domain of modern industry across the globe. On the basis of the entire research the hypothesis would be vetted to prove that whether the assumptions were correct or not and they are really supportive to each other. Thus, it will be verified that ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure) is a complimentary framework to the Prince2 or (PRoject IN Controlled Environment) framework.
1.4 Research Objectives
The main objectives of this research study are to prove that ITIL service management life cycle is a complimentary tool for Prince2 project management framework. This objective would be achieved by getting some sub-goals or objectives as mentioned in the following list.
- Identification of Merits and Demerits of Prince2 Project management Framework
- Identification of merits and demerits of ITIL service management Lifecycle.
- Identification of the areas of ITIL framework that are in complement to the Prince2 project management framework.
- Developing a concluding axiom about the research with the help of feedback and comments from the focus group interview or discussion with industry experts.
- Verification of research hypothesis.
These objectives, once achieved would automatically verify the fact that ITIL is a complementary tool for Prince2 project management framework.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
As described in the purpose of the research section that this dissertation will explore the entire processes and stages of ITIL and Prince2 frameworks to establish that ITIL is a supportive tool to the Prince2 project management framework. This will be done on the basis of different researches and explorations that would verify the research hypothesis; this hypothesis can be described as given below:
“ITIL framework and Prince2 are good to use together for better business results and ITIL is a complementary tool to Prince2 project management framework”
If the objectives of this research (as mentioned in objective section) are achieved through a suggested research mechanism then the hypothesis would prove automatic.
2. Literature Review/Rationale
This is one of the most important chapters of this thesis that covers many technical aspects of ITIL service management life cycle and Prince2 project management framework. The merits and demerits of these two frameworks, existing research in this domain and identification of supportive areas between these two frameworks would be done in this chapter.
2.1 Introduction to ITIL Framework
The ‘ITIL’ is a phrase that is fast attaining prevalence round the IT world. Frequently, It is wrongly referred to as ‘IT governance’ – in fact, on its very own, it certainly is not this. As per the details mentioned in the report by (Thomas M., 2011), ITIL is an accumulation of guidelines that helps companies implement an IT Service Management culture. However, its growing recognition reflects the substantial impact it will make on a company’s IT and business performance and also the fact that, in combination with other frameworks, it is an important component in creating a true IT governance.
What is IT Service Management?
Present day companies are progressively configured or enabled using it. Business and Companies IT management requires regulation and support on managing IT infrastructure so that companies can cost-effectively improve quality and functionality. IT Service Management deals with defining and delivering the guidance and support required by the companies for better functionality and better quality results. In common with other modern management practice, it sets things from the customer’s perspective. It may be comprised of hardware, communication facilities and software.
What exactly is ITIL?
Meaning ‘Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure Library’, ITIL is some guidelines that are the focus of IT Service Management approach. It offers guidance on how to keep it in check infrastructure, to streamline IT services in line with business anticipation. According to the article written by (Thomas M., 2011), ITIL is a best practice framework, showing the consolidated experience with organizations worldwide on the best way to keep a check on services to meet business anticipation. ITIL was initially developed throughout the eighties through the UK’s Central Computer and Technology Agency (CCTA), a government body, which produced ITIL version 1 being an approach to integrating various vendor technologies and serving organizations with varying technical and small business. CCTA is now an area of the Office of presidency Commerce (OGC), which, as an official writer from the ITIL library, up-to-date it released version 3 and continues to develop and support it. ITIL has since become broadly adopted around the globe in both private and public industries and is recognized as well as practice, being used in organizations of different shapes and dimensions.
The Effectiveness of the ITIL Cycle
ITIL cycle implemented by Business Value includes the Service Strategy that drives Service Operations, Service Transition and Service Design. Many U.S. companies working with the ITIL framework can say that the effectiveness of the framework and just how it can benefit business solutions and keep an eye on customer support. The ITIL framework focuses on different areas of the service management; among these areas service, processes and functions and the roles are important to note. All these areas are covered in each and every phase of this framework. Following figure depicts the impact of the ITIL framework for the management of service lifestyle.
Many IT companies are encouraging employees and students to go through the ITIL framework so that the methodology could be incorporated into their systems. Effective control over a person base is something both big and small information mill always trying to find, and lots of will discover it helpful to train a choose staff in the more knowledge about ITIL V3. Students with the ITIL framework now get a certification based on their degree of learning and understanding. Probably the most fundamental certification, Foundation, demonstrates that one has a simple knowledge of the concepts and terminology of the methodology. Foundation should be accomplished before greater certifications can be purchased. Specialist certification has different levels dependent upon ITIL V3 processes used by a person. This level stands for an advanced of understanding of a single part of the ITIL. Expert (formerly known as Manager) signifies the greatest degree of certification achievable and demonstrates a concentrated and comprehensive discernment from the framework.
The Easiest Way to Manage Your IT Services
The ITIL framework offers companies among the quickest turnaround occasions for reactions. The methodology in the end was created with customer support in mind. ITIL V3 is a wise system for companies since it separates issues, analyzing each process carefully, ensuring the results are measured and setting targets for guidance and improvement. With the advance ITIL framework, Not just large companies can use ITIL; even smaller companies can use it. The most recent revision of the software, ITIL V3, and it is forerunners are generally known to as some guidelines for controlling its services. If you’ll need a competent way to manage your customer support base and cut response time in half, possibly the ITIL framework could affect your organization almost as much as it’s accomplished for a number of other U.S. companies in the past few years – by changing the landscape of the way in which that companies interact with clients on a far more personal level.
There are five major stages or the phases of the ITIL V3 framework that are the core components of this entire framework. These five components are described and explained with the help of five comprehensive books that guide the managers through the processes, activities, principles and concepts of managing the services effectively. These five components are given below.
- Service Strategy or SS
- Service Design or SD
- Service Transition or ST
- Service Operation or SO
- Continual Service Improvement or CSI
The details of these components or stages of ITIL service management Lifecycle are described in the next section.
2.1.1 Stages of ITIL V3 Framework for Service Lifecycle
According to the guide written by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), there are many critical issues that are faced by the managers while managing the life cycle of the services. For addressing those problems the IT infrastructure library service management life cycle is divided into five phases. These phases help managers to resolve the problems and issues that come across during the process of service development and management of the same. These issues are summarized as per guidelines provided by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007) booklet for the managers; they are given below.
- Strategic planning for business and information technology
- Alignment of business goals with information technology
- Continuous monitoring and improvement in the services
- Assessment and measurement of efficiency of the organization
- Achieving the return on interest or ROI
- Optimization of total cost of ownership or TCO
- Use of IT for achieving competitive advantages
- Managing changes in both business and IT
- Display of most effective and efficient IT governance
- And a few others
For overcoming and gaining control over these issues, ITIL framework defines five (5) fundamental phases; these phases are listed below.
- Service Strategy or SS
- Service Design or SD
- Service Transition or ST
- Service Operation or SO
Continual Service Improvement or CSI
These five core phases of the ITIL service management life cycle are detailed in separate five books dedicated for every phase of the ITIL framework. These five books provide the detailed and easy to follow procedural set of best practices for achieving the value for customers out of the IT services and the cost efficiency for the business entity or the organization. There is another book (sixth); this book provides the introduction to the ITIL and its other books. These phases are depicted in the following figure and defined in details as given below.
Service Strategy or SS
Service Strategy is a very fundamental phase of ITIL service management life cycle; this phase deals with many strategic, analytic, and visionary activities and processes for conceiving, developing and operating of the IT services. This sits at the core of the entire framework of ITIL service management as shown in above figure. We are going to figure out the main features of this phase here. The purpose of service strategy phase in ITIL is to research, identify, conceive, plan, measure the competitive edges and to achieve the customer satisfaction (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). The main aspects that service strategy or SS phase covers, are described in the following list.
- Researching for suitable service to be offered i.e. what type of service is feasible to be offered to the existing or prospective customers.
- Identification of the market segment – means, which section or segment should be focused for offering the services under consideration.
- How the market places should be developed irrespective of the nature of the market i.e. internal or external market places.
- Analytical and critical analysis of the existing or prospective market that the company is focussing to introduce the service to; this will help companies to get an insight of the competition, weakness, strengths and values of the services that will be offered to the customers.
- The development of most suitable and feasible business cases for securing the strategic investment in both the service management and the service asset capabilities.
- Understanding the perception of customers and the stakeholders in terms of their concept of service-value.
- Identification of competitive edges of the service over the existing similar or similar-like services available in the market place.
- Understanding the psychology of the customer to opt for the service in existing and prospective marketplace.
- The devising of the measurement mechanism for customer value of the service and procedure to monitor the progress.
- Identifying the ways to maintain control and visibility over the creation of value via financial management.
- How to measure the performance of the service to assess the effectiveness of the service and efficiency of the organization.
- Figuring out the means to optimize the available resources for operating the entire portfolio of the services.
Thus in the nut shell, service strategy or SS phase of ITIL framework helps the organization and its management to understand not only the stakeholders, markets and competitors but also the creation of value out of the services to keep its customers satisfied and content.
Meanwhile, ITIL-SS defines some of the concepts called as the key-concepts, which help understand and devise the strategy for better value of the services for customers and the desired business bottom lines for the organization. These key concepts are given below.
- Strategy Developing Factors: The Four Ps
- Service Value
- Market Places
- Types of Service Providers
- Critical Success Factor or CSF
- Service Management – A Strategic Asset
- Models of Service Provisioning
- Accounting in terms of Services
- Restructuring and Development of Organization
The above mentioned key concepts are introduced with detailed information and procedures to implement into the strategy of service development and provisioning. For example, the basic procedure followed to develop a strategy of the service is based on the four Ps (Perspective, Position, Plan & Pattern); it is very clear from this concept that the entire life cycle of a service is managed through proper implementation of these concepts to get a proper direction and evaluation of strengths to achieve a competitive edge and then devising plans and patterns for achieving the business vision and goals. ITIL guides the managers to understand the competition and the marketplaces whether internal or the external ones for getting competitive advantages with the help of another important factor called as competition and market space. Meanwhile, the types of providers and the definition of service value are done in service startegy phases of the ITIL framework. This section of ITIL service management Lifecycle develops the concepts of critical success factor or CSF, which helps the managers to identify and assess and periodically review the CSF based requirement of strategic assets for implementing the service strategy of the company. Similarly, different types of services are also developed and provided to the customers in achieving the customer satisfaction – this requires a proper business strategy that can be easily formulated in the section of the ITIL framework. This section also deals with the well structured, well developed and effective organization of the company to implement the strategy of services in properly, efficient and effective way. Other major areas, for development of a service in a competitive environment, that are covered in this section of ITIL framework are the risk management, service analytics, sourcing strategy and others. The definition of roles and the management of many activities like service portfolio management, financial management, demand management and service level management are also integrated into the strategy here in this section of this framework. The definition of different roles for proper planning and implementation of the business goals is also done in this section where different controlling and service managing roles are defined.
Service Design or SD
The service design or the SD phase of ITIL service management life cycle is very crucial phase of the framework. It is a stage within the entire service Lifecycle. The SD also plays a vital role in the process of business change. As per the study guidelines specified in the Introductory Overview of ITIL V3 (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), the process of business change is defined as “The designing of innovative and suitable IT services that include their processes, policies, architecture and documents for meeting the agreed both present and future business needs”. There are many activities and the processes that are the base of this stage of the service management Lifecycle. These activities, principles and processes are designed to achieve the following objective and goals of this stage of the ITIL framework.
- Designing of the service that is in agreement with the predefined business bottom lines.
- Designing of such processes that are supportive to the service life cycle.
- Identification of risks and management of the same.
- Designing of measuring mechanism or the metrics
- Designing of reliable, resilient and secure environment, information resources, applications, infrastructures, and capabilities to achieve the desirable results.
- Development and the maintenance of the standards, policies, processes, plans, documents and architectures to produce highest quality IT services.
- Capability and skill development in IT services.
In short, we can say that service design section or stage of ITIL framework takes in the requirement of a business based on certain service and produces a complete solution to that fulfills the documented requirements identified in the earlier stage. The Service Design stage provides the organization with a complete service design package or SDP. This SDP can further be handed over to the next section or the stage of ITIL framework called as service transition.
There are five different aspects of SD, which should be properly understood and considered in the development of the services – one more important thing about the SD section is that it is based on a holistic approach of service design (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). It is very important for every manager to adopt the holistic approach while designing the services at this stage of the ITIL framework. The main factors that affect the design of a service in this section are the Four Ps approach of service design. These Four Ps deals with the people, process, partners and products; here in this 4 Ps’ approach people deals with the skill, capabilities and competencies of the human resources required for the development of an IT service. According to the study manual written by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), the second P deals with product, which means what types of systems and technology is required to deliver a desirable IT service. The third P denotes the partners, which relates to the stakeholders of the organization like vendors, suppliers, and manufacturers required for providing better support to service provisioning. The fourth P denotes the processes – all the processes, roles, or the activities required to provide a perfect and high quality service to the customers are covered under this component of the service design approach. These all aspects and other factors related to creating, modifying or ending any service are consolidated into the main package called as service design package SDP.
The major processes that are covered under this stage of the ITIL service management framework are given in the following list. All these processes are properly properly planned and designed in this section or the phase of the service life cycle.
- Service level management or SLM
- Service Catalogue Management or SCM
- Availability Management
- IT Service Continuity Management or ITSCM
- Capacity Management
- Supplier Management &
- Information Security Management
All these processes are not only defined in the documents but they are properly researched, studied and implemented in the service management plans so that the ideal solutions to the targeted problems can be achieved with the help of perfect service designing. The above mentioned processes are very vital for not only development of a new service but also for all existing services; these processes transform below average quality of the services into the most dynamic and customer oriented services in the market place. This phase of ITIL service management life cycle also defines some of the very important roles and responsibilities that are very vital for developing and provisioning of pre-agreed services to the customers. These roles include Service catalogue manager, service design manager, IT design / IT architecture, service level manager, Capacity manager, Supplier manager, security manager, IT service continuity manager, availability manager and others.
Service Transition or ST
The service transition or ST is another very important component for the delivery of an effective IT service to the customers. According to the guideline manual written by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), this phase deals with different principles, processes and roles that are highly required for smooth implementation of either new IT service or the modifying the existing IT services. This stage encompasses all the fundamental processes and activities that cover the risk, fault, incident or any other such types of problems that can arise during the implementation of the service developed under the service design package. The entire guidelines are provided in an ITIL framework book called as the Service Transition. These guidelines help the manager or the teams of an organization to smoothly integrate the modified product into the production or implement the newly developed service into the service. This stage of the ITIL service management Lifecycle once properly understood would help the manager to be able to understand the principles, processes, roles, organization and activities of service transition; meanwhile, the procedure to implement the newly designed or modified service (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). It also helps to analyze and manage the risks, challenges, and critical success factor CSF. The purpose of this phase can be summarized as given below.
- The delivery of service required for operational needs.
- Providing every support required for ongoing service or newly developed services
- Managing the modification required in the service module if the requirements have been changed during the service design processes.
- Make sure that the service will be able to operate both in normal and unforeseen situations or circumstances
- Make sure the availability of support for any kind of error or failure.
There are certain requirements that are highly needed to realize above mentioned purposes; these requirements include the understanding of the potential business value and the understanding of the stakeholders like customers, suppliers and others (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). The understanding and capability of adaptation of services design and modification of the same if required. The key principles that support the service transition stage of the ITIL service management framework are given below:
- Clear knowledge of all services and the utilities and warranties of the same so that it is made sure that all the objectives and constraints of the services are fulfilled.
- A properly documented plan and policy for the implementation of service transition so that no stakeholder, service or event is missed out to avert any kind of failure of the service.
- A proper framework and procedure to transfer the knowledge and required support to the stakeholders before the service is handed over to the service operation.
- Proper management and the anticipation about any correction or change in services and also the proper documentation of those events.
The service transition handles all its activities and processes based on the principles described in the above list. The key activities and processes are given in the following list.
The major processes of service transition are normally based on the whole project basis (holistic approach) because they are important for the entire service Lifecycle and their impact is widespread across the service management Lifecycle.
- Among such processes, transition planning and support are important ones.
- Service validation, release management, testing, and deployment management are also very crucial ones.
- Evaluation is a very important process that deals with the entire framework of service life cycle.
There are some other very important processes meant for whole Lifecycle processes are listed in the following list.
- Knowledge Management
- The Service Asset Management & Configuration Management or SACM
- Change Management
There are many other activities associated with the procedure implementation of service transition stage of the ITIL service management Lifecycle. These activities mostly relate to the operations of the service transition stage; they are summarized in the below given list.
- The management of stakeholders
- Organization of key roles and service transition.
- Management of stakeholders and organizational changes
- Management of commitment and communication across the ITIL service management
Other than above mentioned activities and processes, one of the most important aspect of service transition is the definition of the key roles that steer the entire stage of service transition; these key roles are not developed separately for the service transition stage but, it is highly required to assign the activities and responsibilities to the existing teams from both the service operation and the service design stages of this IT service framework.
Service Operation or SO
Service Operation is at the heart of day-to-day, business as always, Service Delivery. It is like factory of Service Delivery incorporated with Application delivery and infrastructure management (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). Service Operation focuses on the actual execution and delivery of processes and services to deliver business value for clients and customers in a regular, reliable and repeatable manner. A frequently overlooked advantage of Service Operation is that additionally, it provides Operational Validation from the Services delivered. Service Operation is subject to Continual Service Improvement and eventually the delivery and service information excellence. The primary aim for Service Excellence is based on attaining the global standard ISO/ IEC 20000 Service Management. The main goals of ITIL services Operation, according to the guide book written by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), are as given below:
- Enable responsive, repeatable and stable IT Service Delivery
- Deliver enhanced Processes for example Incident and Problem Management
- Provide vigorous start-to-finish working practices
- Deliver new Processes for example: Event Management and repair Request Fulfillment
- Promote more adaptive, agile, and responsive Service Operation functionality
- Help defining and shaping the Service Strategy, service transition, service design and continual service improvement.
The pictorial description of the entire phase of Service Operation or SO of the ITIL service management life cycle is shown in the following figure. This figure has been taken from the manual written by (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007).
The major purposes of Service Operation are summarized in the following list. These purposes can be easily achieved with the help of best practice guideline provided in the Service operation book as mentioned in (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007).
- For coordinating and delivering key focus functions and methods which are required for delivering and managing services at the level decided by the clients and customers
- To manage we’ve got the technology and tool sets that are utilized to deliver and support services
- To manage, measure, control and feedback enhancements in your day to day procedures
- For monitoring performance, collection of data, assess metrics for continual service improvement plans
The needed worth of what a service ought to provide to the company is really modeled in Service Strategy and that model manifests itself in a far more structured way within Service Design. The dwelling and price of the Service are then designed and validated in Service Design and repair Transition. The particular measures for needed amounts of optimization are recognized in Continual Service Improvement; a vital point that is covered in the book is:
“The only real value that matters is that perceived through the customer. Service Procedures is in which the value is shipped and judged.” According to the guidelines of service operation phase of the ITIL framework, the very first principle and services information Operation is concerned with choosing the best balance between:
- The interior IT view in comparison to the exterior business view
- The themes of ‘Reactivity’, ‘proactively’ and ‘control’ are important
There are many processes and activities involved in ITIL phases, it can be broadly classified into operational and tactical layers; the service operation activities are covered here in this section. The service operation phase of the ITIL framework covers a number of management processes such as the ones described below:
- Service Desk Management – The advantages to be looked at are enhanced customer support, better ease of access, quick change on issues, good productivity and overall enhanced management
- Change Management – It is essential for any business to be aware of the impact of change to attain the business goal. Change could be broadly classified into three groups as low, major or radical. The Modification Advisory Board is set up to assess change demands with regard to business. Generally CAB indicates change implementation, further analysis, or cancellation. The top step is that they look at the request change, and inspections if it is achievable.
- Incident Management – This is the entire process of dealing with an unpredicted event that interrupts IT service and reduces quality. The primary goal of incident management is to restore normal activities as quickly as possible.
If we look at the entire scope of this phase of the ITIL service management Lifecycle, we would be able to understand the following major activities are part of the scope of this phase.
- Physical organizing of the service information operations
- Work practices and work processes
- Executing the ongoing activities which are crucial for delivering and support services
- Service Management processes
- Controlling and managing the infrastructure and resources used for delivering the services
- Those who manage we’ve got the technology, processes and services
As per the sequence of the holistic approach of the ITIL framework for IT governance, after service operation, a major phase of the IT governance starts that is called the continual service improvement, which is discussed in the next topic.
Continual Service Improvement or CSI
Continual service improvement or CSI is one of the most powerful and useful stage of the ITIL service management life cycle because this is the only stage that always tries to evaluate, assess and improve the quality and value of the services (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). All other major stages and processes are modified and changed with the help and feedback of continual service improvement stage, according to the newly identified issues with the service. Thus, the CSI always keeps all processes focused on the customer value and quality of the service, which is the only objective of any service based business (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). If we summarize the purpose of this stage, the following list will be sufficient for the same.
- Maintenance of the value of the service for the customers with the help of continual evaluation and improvement.
- Continual efforts to improve the entire IT service management as well as the processes that fall under ITSM.
- Bringing Improvements in all stages of ITIL service management life cycle with the help of regular changes and modification in the processes and the activities under each stage of the service management.
- Bringing the fruits of modern technologies and developments for the better value of the customer services.
- Regular monitoring of business requirements, latest technologies and the quality of the services offered to the customers with the help of different evaluation and assessment activities.
- Creating room for improvement on regular basis.
These purposes in the form of objectives can be achieved, according to (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007), with the help of different assessment and improvement activities as shown in the CSI model shown in the following figure.
The CSI defines three major processes and activities for achieving the objectives of this stage of the ITIL service management Lifecycle. These three activities and processes are given below.
- The 7 Step Improvement Process
- Service Reporting
- Service Management
In above mentioned processes, the 7 step improvement process is a very important one that guides the entire management team for systematic procedures of improvement. This process takes the input from the strategic management team and identifies the objectives of the management in terms of vision, strategy, tactical goals and operational goals. This input is processed through different queries based on data collection, objectives definition and measurement procedures. These activities include identification and definition of the areas to measure, collection of information, processing and analysis of the data or information, presentation of the results that are found during previous activities (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). These seven processes are associated with the goals that can be set with the help of strategic information achieved through the guidelines provided by the strategic management team and the market researches of business marketplaces. The complete set of processes and its relationship to the goals of the organization’s business strategy are depicted in terms of seven step process as given in the following figure.
The service management is another very important process that keeps the service of the company always up to date and effective to the desired value for customers. The service management requires regular measurement of the services so that a proper modification, correction, improvement and quality of the service is maintained. The ITIL defines three key metrics in its CSI phase to measure the services offered to the customers for the value of their money. These three metrics are summarized as given below.
- Process Metrics, whose popular forms are KPI (Key Performance Indicator) and CSF (critical Success Factor)
- Technology Metrics whose popular measurements are service availability or the performance of the service.
- Service Metrics, who common measurements are mixed from process and technology metrics.
The service reporting is also another important process in the CSI phase of the service management Lifecycle. This process is developed for collecting, compiling and presenting the data and information on the services to the strategy managers for definition of objectives and goals in a changed business environment.
Finally, the roles and responsibilities in this segment of ITIL service management Lifecycle are not so specific or activity oriented; the only CSI manager is the major role that is responsible for all the activities (Cartlidge A., Hanna A., Rudd C., et al, 2007). These improvement activities are normally implemented at different stages of the service management.
2.1.2 Strengths of ITIL Framework
As we are trying to figure out the major strengths that are going to support the implementation of Prince2 in the real world scenario, it is very important to identify the key strengths of the ITIL service management framework. As the ITIL framework is one of the most popular and the most recognized service management platforms in the service industry (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), therefore, it becomes more crucial to have deeper insight of this framework in terms of both the strengths and weaknesses. The major strengths of the ITIL framework are summarized in the following list.
One of the most fundamental strengths of this framework is its global popularity and recognition, according to (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), the popularity and acceptance that ITIL got in the entire domains of industries is a clear indication of its strength as compared to other frameworks.
According to (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), The ITIL framework being based on industry best practices, it is the most suitable for IT guidelines.
This is a very flexible framework and can be adopted for every sized organization from small organizations to corporations. This flexibility allows this framework to gain more and more grounds in the industrial world.
The ability to be customized in terms of proprietary types of solutions because it possesses a huge flexibility in terms of its recommendations or best practices for different types of business requirements; thus, it is suitable for providing every type of customized IT service solutions based on the industry best practices.
Easy availability of details and material regarding texts, functions and processes with the help of different forums and popular trainings.
The ITIL is a systematic, structured and professional approach to the solutions of the problems of the service industry, as mentioned in the article by (McKay D., 2010).
The ITIL framework is highly customer oriented platform that is the strongest point of this service management Lifecycle (McKay D., 2010); due to its customer focussed nature, it creates value for the customer , increases the productivity and profit of the company and smoothens the operation of the services.
ITIL provides the most efficient and stepwise processes for the optimization of the available resources and reduction in the cost and expenditures of the services; thus, this framework helps to obtain the value for the customer at a very low cost.
ITIL supports proper guidelines for continual thriving for achieving the best quality of the service, which is very vital for service companies in this highly competitive environment.
According to research results of a Gartner study quoted in the article by (McKay D., 2010), suggest that proper implementation of the ITIL framework in any service organization can reduce the Total Cost of Ownership or TCO by more than 48%.
The ITIL framework provides both the quantifiable as well as the qualitative benefits in terms of the improved quality and enhanced efficiency of the services.
Reduced costs for training and certification are another important power of the ITIL framework because it is widely accepted framework and bulk trainings cost less than the small number of trainings.
The ITIL framework is a professional and documented approach to attain the IT governance in processes and business across different domains of the business; as per details of the articles written by (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), this documented approach helps the people, managers and other stakeholders remain focussed to the targets and it helps to avoid any missed opportunities in the business processes and activities.
Availability of diverse levels and many accredited training and certification awarding institutes that help develop the teams very easily.
The ability of the ITIL framework to develop cohesiveness, communication and effectiveness within the departments and functions of the organization.
Easier procedure for auditing the ITIL based company and its outsourcing units or organizations.
Confidence and support of IEC 20000 and ISO that accept the importance of ITIL through their standard activities.
It helps in reducing costs and risks and increasing customer satisfaction and profitability of the company with the help of quality approach that is used during the implementation of the ITIL framework.
The above mentioned are some of the most important strengths that make the IT infrastructure Library as the most adopted and accepted IT governance framework across the globe. These features, make it more powerful as compared to other such types of frameworks employed in the management of the service life cycles. After having discussed about the strengths and figuring them out in a tangible list, we are going to talk about the weaknesses of the ITIL framework so that we can be in good position to evaluate and assess the power of this framework in comparison with the other such kinds of frameworks for developing the information technology governance in the domain of the industries.
2.1.3 Weakness of ITIL Framework
As we discussed that there are many strong areas in of ITIL service management for any IT service; at the same time, there are some very important weaknesses of this framework that create some issues for the reputation of this popular framework. We are going to talk about those weaknesses of the ITIL framework in this section. According to the research study conducted by (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), more than 76% of the CIOs and the CEOs are very well aware of the benefits and strengths of ITIL while as much as 42% of those managers are interested in implementing the ITIL framework in their services. This is a very clear indication that there are some weaknesses of this framework, which are causing reluctance in the managers for the implementation of ITIL. This study (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006), further suggests that the huge amount of literature related to the benefits of the ITIL framework talk about the unrealized benefits and inconsistent perspectives of IT governance with the help of these management frameworks. The limitations or the weaknesses of ITIL framework are figured out with an explanation in the following summary.
One of the major weaknesses of ITIL framework that is normally considered in the marketplace is that it deals with the IT services only and mostly it uses information technology for maturing the processes or the activities based on the best practices in the industrial world; thus, some people may think it as a limited type of framework for developing IT governance.
The study conducted by (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006) suggests with the help of reference of (Anthes, 2004) that two major restrictions are associated with ITIL framework; these two weaknesses are the failure of the framework to address the issues of software development life cycle and the development of quality management. This study suggests that above both weaknesses can be measured as well as improved with the help of other standards and frameworks like ISO 9000 and Six Sigma framework.
There is an overlapping of the terms used in ITIL and other domains that confuse the teams working in different domains while implementing the ITIL framework. For instance, the view of a software developer for configuration management and release management is very different from that used in the ITIL framework.
The ITIL framework is based on the holistic approach –in case of unavailability of high level of experience and expertise – normally organizations and people try to implement the ITIL’s one discipline at one time, which can lead to disastrous results for the service and the company.
Best practices are not always good practices, (Skeptic, 2008) suggests because people do not like the changes very rapidly and the technology is changing very rapidly and there is no standard form of technology for implementation of the ITIL framework. Thus, a possibility of selection of unsuitable technology would remain intact.
Another important weakness of the ITIL framework that many IT managers talk about is the imbalance among the major issues. As per (Spencer, n.d) in his article named “ITIL” available at http://www.tech-faq.com/itil.html, some topics of ITIL have got more emphasis and explanation in the books while the others have a very little emphasis; that is creating imbalance in the weight-age.
After having researched with the help of some prominent articles written by (Skeptic, 2008), (Spencer, n.d) and some other others like (Wessels E., and Loggerenberg JV., 2006) about the weaknesses of ITIL framework, it has been concluded that they are some very important weaknesses in this framework of the service management life cycle, which need to addressed with the help of other some frameworks operating in the domain of service management. We will be considering about the comparison of these frameworks in the conclusion section of this report.
2.2 Introduction to Prince 2 Framework
Prince2 is a process-driven approach to project management that is acknowledged as the standard for project management in Britain as well as many other countries. Prince2 was actually launched in 1996, coming as an advancement of its predecessors Prince and PROMPTII. In the year 2009, a new version of this system was launched, called PRINCE2:2009, which was a revises version of the original, but still fundamentally based on the same principles. According to the article available on (Adapttiveframeworks.com.au, 2012), today Prince is one of the world’s most popular project management systems, and is used in a wide variety of areas, some of which are not even based on IT.
Basic principles of Prince 2
Ideally, PRINCE2 is based on seven principles which more or less define how project management should be done as per the article written by (Buehring, 2012). Briefly, here are the seven principles:
The first principle is the principle of continued business justification. According to this principle, making the decision that a business or a project is viable is a long process that continues throughout the implementation process, and not just when it starts (Buehring, 2012). At every stage of the process, you ought to justify that the business is still doing well as far as the objectives are concerned. Otherwise, if the business does not seem to be doing well at any point, then it might as well be done away with. This principle is important in ensuring that the implementation of a project is done with constant reference to the original objectives.
According to the details provided in the article written by (Buehring, 2012), the second is the principle of defined roles and responsibilities. InPRINCE2, Everyone involved in the process of project management has clear, defined roles. They know what is expected of them and who to report to in the managerial arrangement. This is very important in ensuring that people at various levels don’t collude in their roles, thus avoiding any conflicts within the organization.The third principle is that of learning from experience. The logic behind this principle is that when we evaluate similar projects that have been done in the past and look at what they did right as well as what they did wrong, we are able to make better decision on a current project (Buehring, 2012). And at the end of the current report it is expected that a detailed report will be written to be used as a benchmark for future projects.
For the objectives of the project to be fully realized, there is a need for there to be a clear focus on the product of that project. This is actually the fourth principle. A description of the product, made by the manager in close consultation with the targeted customers must be made even before the project starts. More elaborate product descriptions will be made at later stages of the project, but these later descriptions will be based on the initial model. Another important principle is the principle of managing by stages. In a PRINCE2 framework, a project is managed and audited periodically at a number of stages from the initiation stage as per the official content of (Official Article of ILX Group, 2013). Here, at the end of every stage, the project is assessed to determine whether it is still viable. If it’s not, then it ought to be terminated. If it is still in line with the objectives, then it can move to the next stage and so on.
The two other principles are the principle of managing by exception and the principle of specific tailor to suit the environment. The former principle is concerned with the scope of duty for the project manager. It defines the role of the board as only making exceptional decisions when at the end of a project stage. The latter principle relates to the flexibility of the framework, being tailor made to suit the particular business environment.
Themes and processes
This framework also has seven themes, which are generally integrated into the seven principles or vice versa. The seven themes are: Business case, organization, quality, plans, change, progress and risks. PRINCE2 is a structured framework based processes, as per (Official Article of ILX Group, 2013). Basically, there are seven processes, the first being the project start-up, followed by project initiation. Usually, assuming that the project does not end prematurely, the end of the project is the last process. Being a structured framework, PRINCE2 enables a lot of efficiency in a project management environment (Official Article of ILX Group, 2013). With a keen and close monitoring, this mode can be used to achieve successful project management in a wide variety of business environments. The flip side of this framework is that it is sometimes deemed as inappropriate for the smaller projects whose requirements are likely to change drastically over time. This is because as a business grows, requirements change and sometimes objectives change too. In such circumstances, PRINCE2 may not be the best framework for a project like that.
2.2.1 The Processes of Prince 2 Framework
The PRINCE2 approach to project management is essentially process driven according to the technical material written by (Buehring S., 2012); this means that processes are the basis of a typical PRINCE2 model. The processes in PRINCE2 are usually triggered by certain events or managerial decisions made by people at various levels of the management team. For every process in a PRINCE2 model, according to (Buehring S., 2012), there is a certain level of the management team that is responsible for it. As described in the introductory academic material written by (Turley F., 2010), a typical plan would have each stage assigned to a particular level of management so that everyone knows what is expected of them in the process of project management. Although the processes are fairly independent from each other such that each process is expected to give its own results, they are intricately interconnected because the success of one process determines whether the next process will even begin (Turley F., 2010). There are seven processes in a PRINCE2 project management framework; these processes are applicable in just about any business environment due to their flexibility.
Project start up
This is the first process in every PRINCE2 approach. It is a very important process that actually takes place before the project is initiated. In technical terms, accoding to the details provided by (Turley F., 2010), this process is triggered by a document referred to as the project mandate. The project mandate is given by the authority that commissions the project, and basically explains why the project should be started. The project mandate explains the objectives as well as the viability of the projects and in highly technical terms, the expected time frame within which the project is expected to be completed. The goal of this process is usually to attain the necessary authorization required for the project to actually begin. There are some six activities that are usually carried out during this process as mentioned by (Buehring S., 2012):
Activity 1 is the appointment of the project manager as well as the Executive. While the project manager will be responsible for the daily operations of the business, the executive will be the one to take care of the interests of investors.
Activity 2 is the creation of a reference called the lessons log, which contains the lessons learnt from past projects as well as the current one. This is important in ensuring that mistakes are not repeated.
Activity3 will be coming up with a management team, with clear descriptions of roles and scope of duty to ensure smooth running of the project once it gets started.
Activity 4 involves preparation of a business case. A business case is a justification of business and why it is necessary or profitable. This business case will be referred to at every stage of project management to ensure that the project is still worthwhile.
Activity 5 is carried out by the manager, who comes up with a comprehensive approach to the project and presents it to the executive board which will approve it before it starts.
The activity 6, which is the last activity in this process, is the planning of the second process, namely, the initiation process.
The Initiation process
The initiation stage is carried out after the executives have approved the project approach and the briefs as presented to them by the project manager (Buehring S., 2012). Actually this process is triggered by the event of approval by the board, and takes place during the initiation stage of management. During this process, some points ought to be made clear both to the managing team and to the other affected parties as per the contributed shared by (Turley F., 2010).One of the things to be made clear is the task of the project. What should be done, why and how it should be done, and how will they reduce the risks involved in the process. Other things that everyone should understand include how the project is going to be controlled as well as how the various levels of management are going to communicate with each other. And not least of all, they should understand their roles and responsibilities as far as the project is concerned (Turley F., 2010). There are eight activities involved in this process; these activities are discussed here.
The first activity involves the preparation of a risk management strategy. A risk management strategy is prepared alongside preparation of a risk register which explains the status of the risks involved in the project. The next one is the preparation of a configuration management strategy, which explains how configuration management is carried out within the set up of project management. The management team must also prepare the quality management strategy which ensures that the expected quality of the products is met and maintained. Another activity is the preparation of a communication management strategy which outlines what will be the frequency as well as the manner of communication between the different levels of management. It is also at this stage that a project protocol is set up, to enable easy monitoring by the project manager as well as easy processes of communication between the manager and the executive. A comprehensive business plan should also be set up in consultation with all stakeholders (Turley F., 2010). Another activity is the refining of the business case, which is supposed to be more detailed and realistic to the situation at that time. Lastly, the team needs to assemble the project initiation document, which should be presented to the executive for approval.
Directing the project
This is the process where the executive issues the daily program for the operations of the business to the manager, who then delegates the duties for the rest of his team. As suggested by (Turley F., 2010), during this process, it emerges that the executive has absolute control of the project, as it is the executive who makes important decisions regarding resource allocation as well as approval of the business case. As per the technical detailes provided by (Buehring S., 2012), the executive also responds to cases of exception whenever such cases arise, and they decide accordingly. After all, the executive is directly answerable for the failure or success of the project.
There are five activities associated with this process, as they are mentioned by (Buehring S., 2012):
After the Project Brief and the initiation plan have been successfully prepared and presented to the executive board. The executive will be expected to approve of these documents, and by doing so, they will have authorized the Manager to get the project to the initiation stage.
Authorization of the project: The executive can only approve of the project and give a go ahead to the manager after examining the Project Initiation plan. Basing on this document, the executive will have to ascertain a number of things: The first is obviously the project’s overall viability. Next is whether the plan is bound to satisfy the business case (Turley F., 2010). The other thing is to ensure that the strategies are in place and are satisfactory. Based on this, they can decide whether or not to authorize the project.
Another activity is to authorize an exception plan. An exception plan is necessary if a given stage of project management seems like it is going to exceed its boundaries or time frame.
Sometimes the project manager might need to be given ad hoc instructions or advice by the executive. This is warranting in a few instances. For example, when there is need to make a corporate decision and when the environment of the project changes.
Authorizing closure of the project: This is done the project is complete, all the objectives have been met and the product has been delivered.
Controlling a stage Process
The controlling process essentially describes the activities of a project manager as he engages in the day to day activities of the project. Although, according to academic content contributed by (Buehring S., 2012) suggests that the success of a project is usually credited to the executive, it is the manager who the real work on the ground and the executive only makes crucial decisions at certain stages of the project.
There are eight important activities that take place during this process of PRINCE2 project management framework.
The project manager has to agree with the team manager and authorize the work Package. The work package details what is expected of the team including details like the following: What to be produced, how much it will cost and how long it will take (Turley F., 2010). It also explains when reports are expected to be submitted, as well who will approve of the project’s products.
The Project manager is expected to regularly review the work being done and see whether it satisfies the Work Package that had been agreed upon.
After all the work has been done and the Work Package has been satisfied. The manager updates the stage plan confirming that indeed the work package has been completed.
The status of a stage must also be reviewed regularly by the manager to make sure that they are in control and up to date on the project’s progress.
The manager should not only keep a close watch on the project’s progress, but also keep the executive board up to date.
It is also important to identify the risks as well as any issues that arise during implementation so that the manager can report to the concerned people or make necessary decisions on time.
Many issues can be dealt with by the manager. But in case the issues escalate or run out of hand, then the manager has to report that to the executive board for appropriate action.
In cases where the problem seems unlikely to escalate beyond what the manager should handle, he will then have to report to the Executive.
Managing product delivery process
One important assumption that PRINCE2 makes is that every project is based on an environment, which is basically an interaction between a customer and a supplier (Turley F., 2010). This process is especially about the role of the team managers as they try to achieve the goals which had been set by the Work Package. Of course the team manager answers directly to the project manager in his work, and has to keep the manager up-to-date with everything that is going with the project (Buehring S., 2012).
During the Management product delivery process, three important activities take place, which are listed below:
The team manager has to accept the work package in agreement with the project manager during this process. The work package details what is expected of the team throughout the process. It also outlines what their challenges are expected to be as well as what recourses they will need. After this acceptance the team manager the sets out to create a work plan which details how the team is going to achieve their goals as per the expectations of the work package.
The next activity is the execution of the work package. What happens is that the Team Manager adopts the work package and then proceeds to start getting the job done. The team manager will be involved in delegating work as well as the daily supervision and monitoring of the work as it continues. And as the work goes, it is the team manager’s duty to keep the project manager updated on the progress of the project.
Delivery of the work package. After the products have been developed, they have to be presented for approval by the relevant authorities. Once everyone is certified that the products are the way they should be, then the Team leader can proceed to indicate on the Work plan than in fact the job has been done successfully.
Managing Stage Boundaries Process
The PRINCE2 framework is such that it is divided into stages for ease of management as mentioned in the technical material contributed by (Buehring S., 2012). At the end of these stages, the board does an assessment of the project progress so far to make sure that it is in line with the objectives, and that it is still viable according to the business case.
There are six activities which ought to be done by the Project manager at least one time during every stage of project management.
The Project manager needs to have a detailed plan of the subsequent stage or the next stage- a plan that he has to present to the executive for approval. This plan should include
Detailed plan or procedure for any changes to the general approach of the project.
The project plan should also be updated by the project manager at the end of every stage. Updating the project plan involves filling in the actual results from the particular stage of management, and outlining the management team’s projection for the next stage.
It is also important that the business case be defended by the project manager. The project should be within its limits of time and expenditure at the end of every stage. The executive board then makes a decision on how viable the project is so far and whether or not to continue with the next stage (Turley F., 2010).
And before the executive gives a go ahead for the next stage, the Project manager should present a comprehensive end stage report, detailing the performance of that stage as well suggestions of any changes to the original plan.
In the case that there are limitations to successful completion of the stage and there is a need for an exception, the Project manager is the one who should initiate the exception by preparing and presenting an exception plan for approval by the executive board.
Closing Project stage
Even after the project has technically ended having achieved all the objectives, it does not necessarily mean the end of work for the manager and the managerial team (Buehring S., 2012). There are a few things that should be done before the team finally completes the job. They should ensure the following requirements are in place:
That the product has not only been delivered, but has been approved too.
Plans are in place for maintenance of the project.
Benefits reviews have been conducted.
Plans are in place to deal with issues that are yet to be resolved.
There are five activities associated with this process (Buehring S., 2012). All these activities are carried out by the project manager depending on the circumstances under which the project ends. Here are the five processes:
The first activity related to the closure to the project is to prepare for the planned closing of the project. This deals with the complete reporting to the management about the project that desired deliverables have been successfully achieved and give the entire details of the cost, time and quality. The approval of the board is achieved with the help of these reports and presentations.
Preparation of premature closure of the project – there are instances when the board decides that the project should close before its estimated time. At such times, the project manager has to make preparations for that closure, including plans of how they will recover the uncompleted products.
When the project has been completed successfully, the Project manager has a duty of handing over the product to the designated customers.
After the project is completed, it is important to evaluate the project accordingly. Evaluation of the project is more than just a success versus failure. It is also a general assessment of performance compared to the expectations, and the evaluation is important especially for as a benchmark for future projects.
Recommendation of project closure – since the project board is the one in total control of the project, it is expected that the board will be the authority that recommend closure of the project, once the board is satisfied that the project has either achieved its goals or is no longer viable. Once this recommendation is made and approved, then the project closes and there is no more business going on from there.
These are the processes, which are very closely related to the project processes because the project processes are predominantly targeted for the objectives defined in the section of the seven themes of the PRINCE2 project management framework (Buehring S., 2012). These all seven themes of the PRINCE2 project management are discussed in the following topic.
2.2.2 The Themes of Prince2 Framework
According to the definition provided by the technical description article written by (Buehring, 2012), the themes are the most focussed and objective areas that should always be looked over and any problems that come in the way to achieve the true meaning of these themes should be addressed continuously and consistently. The themes of Prince 2 frameworks are closely integrated or associated with the processes described in the above section, say the article (Buehring, 2012). The same thing is also verified and insisted in the another article written on the official website of the ILX group (Official Article of ILX Group, 2013). These themes are seven in numbers and are listed in the following list.
- Business case
- Progress &
The details of these themes are given below in the context of a couple of useful technical and academic articles. The two major articles are (Buehring, 2012) available at http://www.whatisprince2.net/prince2-themes.php, and ILX Group Expert Blog on (ILX Blog, 2012) . The pictorial description of the seven themes of Prince 2 is shown below in the figure.
Business Case: The major theme of Prince 2 that will help you understand the how an idea can be productive of desired results (ILX Blog, 2012). This section will keep you focused on the objectives whether the implementation of the project management through Prince2 will help you get the targets. According to (Buehring, 2012), the business case the fundamental document that initiates the process of project management. It gives you a detailed calculations and feasibility of the business to achieve the desired business results. This theme devises a mechanism to regularly maintain the focus on the objectives defined in the business case.
Organization: The main objective of the organization is to keep the entire team focused and target oriented to achieve the goals defined in the project deliverables; (Buehring, 2012) suggests that this theme develops a comprehensive structure and matrix of the responsibilities not only the project and management team but also of the entire group of stakeholders.
Quality: This theme is responsible for making it sure that the stakeholders of the project or service and especially the customers are not disappointed about the quality of the service that they get against their money they spend (Buehring, 2012). This theme develops a complete set of activities that ensure the achievement of the quality that is agreed with the customers (ILX Blog, 2012).
Plans: According to (ILX Blog, 2012), this theme describes all the activities, objectives, and the procedure to achieve the results of the activities; this theme is also responsible for telling about the timeline and defining the point of action for the activity. The academic details provided by (Buehring, 2012) suggest that this theme includes project plan, stage plan, exception plan, team plan, and other levels of plans and activities.
Change: The theme of change is very fundamental in any kind of project management and Prince2 framework gives it more importance in its development. The main objective of change as a theme of Prince2 is to make and monitor the controlled changes in the project so that security and stability of the project is maintained (Buehring, 2012).
Progress: According to (Buehring, 2012), the progress is the comparative analysis of the anticipated or planned objectives in terms of time, money and quality with the actual achievement of the project objectives, which are assessed with the help of reports or the progress reports. Meanwhile, the perception of (ILX Blog, 2012) suggests that it is the comparative focus that is always targeted on the original objectives, which were defined in the project plan.
Risk: This theme of Prince 2 identifies the risks that can interrupt or damage the desired outcome of the project. This theme counts for identification of all risks involved in the project plan and subsequently making the remedial plans to avert those risks or mitigate them to a tolerable level (Buehring, 2012). This theme also manages risk management procedures and defines the response to any kind of risk that arises during the course of project Lifecycle.
This gives us a clear picture about the processes, objectives, and activities of the PRINCE2 project management approach with the help of above major sections related to the respective areas of the PRINCE2 project management framework. This also gives us a very clear understanding that what are the major pitfalls and what are the major strengths of PRINCE2 framework. The finding out and figuring out the major strengths and weaknesses of PRINCE2 are the main objectives of this study so that we can compare it with the same features of ITIL service management to establish a relationship between these two frameworks. We are going to figure out the strengths and weaknesses of PRINCE2 framework in the following sections.
2.2.3 Strengths of Prince2 Framework
The PRINCE2 project management framework is one of the most popular frameworks across the globe with over 20,000 organizations already using this framework; this is revealed by the white paper written by (Murray A., 2011). Prince2 is not only very popular one due to its modular approach to project management but also it is a non-proprietary project management framework (Murray A., 2011), which can be applied to different types and different sizes of the organizations. This framework is being used in more than 150 countries across the world and the number is counting (Murray A., 2011). As per white paper of (Murray A., 2011), the Prince2 framework is popular and recognized across the world due to its modular approach of processes and the themes and solid foundation of the principles as depicted in the following given figure.
There are many other strengths and advantages of the Prince2 project management framework; these strengths are summarized in the following list.
One of the most powerful strengths of the PRINCE2 project management framework is its widespread acceptability and popularity in multiple countries and regions across the globe, which makes it one of the most suitable and flexible project management framework to opt for.
PRINCE2 is a modular framework approach to manage the projects, which gives it a competitive edge over other project management tools.
The flexibility and scalability is another important feature of PRINCE2 that is counted as the major strength of this framework as per research of (Murray, 2011). This can be implemented for any kind and size of the company across multiple disciplines of the industries across the globe (Ferguson C., 2011).
The PRINCE2 framework consists of a set of control themes, a set of principles and the set of activities and processes to carry out the project successfully (Murray, 2011).
Another important strength of this project management framework is its terminology and terms used in the technical language of project management; they are very commonplace and very easy and universal to understand and adopt.
PRINCE2 supports and allows to integrate the industry specific models with its terminology and technicality without any difficulties (Murray, 2011).
It specifies the specific roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders and the parties involved in the project management and also applies the strategy of management by exception, which helps to utilize the precious time of higher management more effectively and efficiently.
The availability of many schools, training centers and accreditation institutes that are imparting precious training on very reasonable rates across the globe in more than 150 countries; this is one of the strongest feature of this framework, which resolves the issue of technical human resources in this field of industry (Scroll Method: Training Content – “The 7 Prince2 Themes”, 2009).
It ensures that a continuing viability of the project is maintained with the help of the objectives and focus on the themes of the project.
Another very important and most powerful strength of the PRINCE2 project management framework is its capability of being conformable with other frameworks and standards both local and international (Official Article on PRINCE2 Website: Prince2 in Comparison – Prince2 Advantages, 2012). This article further elaborates that the PRINCE2 framework is one of the most dynamic and consistent with many other frameworks.
The PRINCE2 framework is also becoming more and more popular in terms of comparative adaptability with other international as well as local standards (Official Article on PRINCE2 Website: Prince2 in Comparison – Prince2 Advantages, 2012).
There are some other known and unknown features that are in favor of the PRINCE2 framework of project management when compared to different types of project and service management frameworks. This comparison will be done in the next chapter where different case studies and the comparisons will be conducted to figure out the practical approach for proving that the PRINCE2 framework is more useful as compared to some other popular frameworks.
2.2.4 Weaknesses of Prince2 Framework
Like all other frameworks employed in the project management or service management, the PRINCE2 project management framework has also some pitfalls and weaknesses; although it is one of the most competitive and attractive frameworks in the domain of project management field across the globe. Among such pitfalls, a few very important ones are given in the following list.
- One of the major drawbacks or the weakness of the PRINCE2 project management framework is its lacking in the field of softer skills, which are required for a project manager or the project stakeholders for carrying out the project management activities effectively; as it was mentioned in the technical article available at (Official Article on PRINCE2 Website: Prince2 in Comparison – Prince2 Advantages, 2012).
- There are no major details about the software development in this framework of best practices for project management as per the comments of an expert at (whirlpool forum, 2009), and also there is no product based planning section in this particular framework of project management and thus it requires some help from other frameworks to cover these deficits in its structure.
- This framework of project management has got a very little focus on the development of the personal skills, which play very vital role in the management of the project tasks according to the scholarly article by (Mattoc G., n.d).
- According the same article contributed by (Mattoc G., n.d) suggests that Prince2 framework deals with the increased level of paper work is involved in this approach rather than intensive software or other forms of technology to reduce the paperwork, this makes the entire framework look like a bureaucratic framework rather than a corporate one.
- Prince 2 project management is considered to be less useful for those organizations or the projects that are small in size or volumes due to its nature of managing huge lists, logs and documents, although the PRINCE2 itself claims to be very flexible and scalable for any kind of business or the organization.
On the basis of above mentioned weaknesses we would be in good position in the next chapter to analyze and deduce the common and contrast points of both the ITIL and Prince2 frameworks.
2.3 Diverse School of Thoughts in Project/Service Management
As there are different types of project managers in the domain of project management; as per an article written by (Ahmed, 2012) suggests that, there are five types of project managers with a strong ideology about the project management like the religious people have. According to (Ahmed, 2012), some of the managers behave like clergies do and some of the managers deal like flowers or the secular when the matter of project management and the service management is under consideration. These managers adopt very different types of approaches for managing the projects and the services. Some of them are so ideologue that they do not even understand the version of any other manager or the expert of the industry. But most common thoughts of these five types of managers can be generalized in two major thoughts one is called as the “Either Project or Service Approach” and the other one as “Combined Project and Service Approach”. These both approaches would be discussed in more details in the following topics. In another technical article written by a project management expert (Frank D., 2012), it says that there are a few very important project management approaches like the traditional approach like (waterfall approach in IT projects), PRINCE2 approach, Event Chain Methodology and Lean Project Management. These approaches engage different methodologies some are single framework based approach while the others are a combination of the two (Frank D., 2012); these methodologies give you very clear idea about the benefits of the combined approaches. In the final concluding comments from (Frank D., 2012), he suggests that the selection of the methodology is not a hard and fast rule in the modern industrial environment, which is very dynamic and volatile in terms of changes and new approaches are required to merge to find the desired solution. That desired deliverable is the achievement of better quality completion of the desired task within predefined budget and time limits. We are going to discuss about two important combined approaches for project management and the service management. These approaches are discussed in the following topics.
2.3.1 Either Project Approach or Service Approach
This is an old approach in which the entire product Lifecycle is not considered as the combined objective of the project and two different phased of the project and the product management life cycles are considered separately. In this type of approach, the different roles associated with the different frameworks perform in the isolation, may be suitable for a specific target of the project or the service but it can be an unrealistic and sometimes un-beneficial in terms of a long term objectives of the business. According to the technical article by (training-course.org, 2012), there are many common things of both project management and service management; among such common things, the objectives of a team and the objectives of an organization are key to mention. Therefore, dealing both the service and the project in the isolation may not be that productive. Still, there are many managers and strategic business thinkers who believe in the fact that both the project management and the service management should be dealt in separate frameworks and perspectives, as it is mentioned in the article of (ILX Group, 2013). A detail about the isolated approached of a project or the service is not the major concerned related to our research study, although, we would be focusing on the combined approach of project and service managements that is introduced in the next topic and will continue in the perspective of past researches and future predictions.
There are many frameworks that deal with the services and the frameworks can be adopted in the isolation to fulfill the requirements of both the service management and the project management. Sometimes, the people or the managers dealing with this ideology of service or project management strictly believe that one framework is sufficient with some minor modifications to deal with all processes and activities required to manage the entire Lifecycle of the services or the products. But, many studies conducted in the recent years have proved that this type of thoughts are not useful due to the ever changing nature of the modern world businesses across the globe. This discussion would further be done in the next chapter.
2.3.2 Combined Project and Service Approach
This approach is being considered as the most fundamental for achieving the business objectives and goals of the teams in modern and ever changing environments of business. According to a scholarly article available at (Training-course.org Scholarly Article, 2012), there are many common areas or the crossovers between service management and the project management. These common points concentrate on the main goals of the teams to achieve the desirable results. The same article (Training-course.org Scholarly Article, 2012) further suggests that the nature of the approach of both the services based framework and the project based framework like ITIL and Prince2 focus on the holistic approach to the management of the service and the project. There are many other managers and experts in the field of project management as well as in the service management who believe that the combined approach of service and the project management is very important in the modern scenario of the industrial world, where the business perspectives change at very rapid speed and the relationship between service management the project management has become very crucial and they are very useful for each other.
In this research paper we are going to discuss about the common and different features of the ITIL and PRINCE2 frameworks to establish that the ITIL service management framework is a complimentary tool for the Prince2 project management. The main discussion is about to follow next.
2.4 Analysis of Existing Research in IT Project Management
The major objective of our dissertation is to find out the complementary points of ITIL framework that support the framework of the PRINCE2 project management. For figuring out the common points of these two frameworks, we are going to dive into the research work that is conducted in the field of the combined approach of ITIL and Prince2 frameworks. In this section, we will be studying following major researches that have been conducted in this domain. Although, there are not many research papers or the research studies conducted in this domain, still a sufficient material will be available to figure out the some important findings related to our objective of the study. The list of some research studies and articles is given below.
- Case Study: Using ITIL & PRINCE2 Together – By Noel Scott, (2010)
- Model Mania – By Garry H Anthes, (2004)
- Delivering IT Services Using Prince2, DSDM and ITIL – By Dorothy Tudor, (2007)
- The Intersection of IT Service and Project Delivery – By Mark Thomas, (2011)
- Integrating Six Sigma and PRINCE2 2009 – By Mike Ward, (2009)
Although, all these researches are not directly related to the overlapping of two major frameworks like the ITIL and the PRINCE2, but all of them are directly or indirectly related to the objectives of this dissertation. The detailed analysis of these studies is given below.
Case Study: Using ITIL & PRINCE2 Together – By Noel Scott, (2010)
This is one of the most popular study conducted by the Noel Scott in 2010. This research study covers many aspects of project management and service management Lifecycle. The author is a certified project management professional (PMP) under the framework of PMI and work as PMP consultant; he is also certified under ITIL, PRINCE2 and MSP programs at advanced levels. According to the study by (Scott, 2010), his point of view of the diverse approach to the management of the project and the service is very useful. He justifies the entire support of the ITIL framework, which is contributed by the this framework to the project management based on the PRINCE2 framework. The study takes an instance of a case to establish an offshore help desk as a small project. He figures out the complementary features of the ITIL framework that help the PRINCE2 framework, with the help of project management processes in real world scenarios. This case study has two parts first part figures out that which parts of the PRINCE2 project management are supportive to the ITIL service management framework and the second part figures out the complementary parts of ITIL service management life cycle that contribute to the effectiveness of the project management based on the PRINCE2 framework. This case study figures out four domains of the PRINCE2 project management framework that are supportive to the ITIL service management; these domains are listed below (Scott, 2010).
- Business justification is key to the PRINCE2
- Breaking up of the tasks into manageable stages
- Implementation of the lessons learnt from the past experiences
- Systematic Risk Management Process
At the other part of this case study, a detailed justification is provided on how the ITIL is proving itself to be complementary to the PRINCE2 framework processes and the activities. In this report (Scott, 2010) suggests that there are many major areas of the ITIL service management framework that are basically very supportive and complimentary to the processes and the activities carried out under the framework of the PRINCE2 project management. He further identified some of the very important areas of them; as per report (Scott, 2010), they are listed below.
- Substantial support during the project start up
- Effective support in Communication
- A useful contribution in establishing a balance between cost and quality
- Notable contribution in plugging the gap of the PRINCE2 framework.
These are major contributions, which were verified with the help of a project case that was mentioned earlier in the first section of this report by (Scott, 2010). In this report, the author verified the contribution of the ITIL framework in the support of the PRINCE2 in the practical environment where a sample of the offshore service center was taken as the base for verifying the results achieved with the collaborative use of these two The author of this case study (Scott, 2010) further explained that service design and the service strategy are two major stages that generate a detailed product plan, which is very clearly support the project mandate category in the project management based on the Prince2 framework. There are many features of a project mandate, which are covered in very effective and efficient way in the framework of the ITIL; these features ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management are normally detailed in the first two stages of the ITIL service management Lifecycle.
It is further found out during the research study that the ITIL identifies the roles and the responsibility of the project more efficiently that effectively help to understand every member of the team about his or her role and responsibility to achieve the required objective or the goal of the task and project. And also, there is a clear similarity in of the roles that match to the personnel identified in the project mandate of Prince 2 framework; the example of the role of the senior user in the project mandate is matched with the incident manager defined by the ITIL service management framework.
The second important contribution of the ITIL framework of service management to the Prince2 based project management is the communication; communication based on the ITIL framework is very clear and precise. For example, the ITIL defines problems as different from the incidents, although the incidents are the problematic ones as
they are considered in the other project management terminologies. Thus, according to the case study results observed by (Scott, 2010) suggest that the ITIL supports the project management activities of communication very positive and more effectively than any other tool. Therefore, ITIL is a very complimentary tool for the PRINCE2 project management especially in the process of the communication. Meanwhile, the key focus of the ITIL on the quality of the service and the clear definition of the required product provide very useful information about the definition of the service and the definition of the responsibilities of the personnel that are going to provide the value to the customers for their money they spend.
ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management The third important and complementary tool of the ITIL service management Lifecycle for the Prince2 project management framework is the creation of a desirable balance
between the quality and the cost of the product or the project. The author (Scott, 2010) further figures out that during the course of project planning and implementation, many details and deep involvement of the project cause the team as well as the managers to digress away from the main objective of the task or the project. This can happen by going deep into the details of the single activities of the project and sometimes keeping close eye on more improvement in the quality can lead the project results to huge bills and less profits. In such conditions, the ITIL framework is very helpful to keep the focus of the project targeted on the desired outcomes of the project because the ITIL best practices take special care of the balance between the cost of the service and the quality of the service so that a profit margin can be achieved. This feature of the ITIL framework proved very useful in this case study of establishing an offshore service desk according to the findings of (Scott, 2010) case study report.
The fourth major area of ITIL framework that was proved to be a complementary one by (Scott, 2010) was the abilities of the ITIL framework to plug the gaps of Prince2 framework. The study finds out the results with the help of practical approach of establishing the offshore service desk; there were many gaps if the two parts of the projects are implemented with the help of any project management framework like PRINCE2. For example, the new offshore service desk was completed in time and on budget but the main objective of the project was to implement and share the load of the existing service desk without any outage or the service degradation that can cause serious customer dissatisfaction and subsequently bad impact on the company ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management revenue. The ITIL framework’s stage called as service transition come into play here to plug the gap of PRINCE2 project management to effectively and smoothly transition the services to the operational pool of services. The ITIL service management Lifecycle clearly identifies the anticipated issue and problems during the course of service transition and also makes the remedial arrangements to make it sure that all problems are tackled in slack time and no quality oriented issues related to the existing services is observed. There are some other issues or the gaps of the PRINCE2 project management framework that can be filled up with the help of best practice sets of the ITIL framework (Scott, 2010). These gaps are the maintaining the focus of the team to the goals of the project at every stage and process during the entire Lifecycle of the Subsequently, the author of the case study report (Scott, 2010) concluded that the ITIL framework is a complementary tool for the successful completion of the projects under the PRINCE2 framework of project management.
Model Mania – By Garry H Anthes, (2004)
Model mania is a scholarly article that sketches the importance of different management frameworks in terms of the adaptation of these models in different industrial entities across the global industrial market. This report is compiled by Garry H Anthes an expert of the industry in the domain of management. According to the scholarly article written by (Anthes, 2004), these types of management models started in early 80s when the growth of Japan was amazingly high and the United States of ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management America opted for the improvement in the quality of their industrial processes to compete against the most dynamic and cruising economies of the world. The United States adopted the quality religion as per notion of (Anthes, 2004). According to the details of the report, many standard and management frameworks were employed in different companies and industries like IBM adopted a combination of many frameworks fro better results of the business processes. This report talks about the importance of these frameworks and also talks about those companies that have not adopted them formally but they opted for even a newer version of proprietary framework, which is although, not recognized by the other companies or the standard organizations but these companies are getting the desired benefits from those practices for their own
business processes. The example of such companies is MasterCard Inc. This report by (Anthes, 2004) also figures out the benefits of these frameworks like it says that, by the implementation of the CMM framework in software development industry reduced software defects by about 25% and emergency releases by 60%; thus, a huge benefit was observed by the software companies by implementation of Capability Maturity Model or CMM. According to the CIOs and CEOs the COBit and CMM are best suitable for those companies that deal with the information technology services based on the software development tools. This report by (Anthes, 2004) further suggests that ITIL is the best framework of industry best practices to deal with the problems and issues hidden in the IT services and also for the development of a new product but it lacks in development of a proper quality improvement and management system model; therefore – if combined with other frameworks – would provide most amazing results.
This report further suggests that once company called Capital One Inc implemented the ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management ITIL framework and achieved wonderful results – more than 30% of production incidents and out of them the critical and highly server incidents reduced by more than 92%.
This report concludes that ITIL is a huge framework and can be used with many other frameworks successfully like Prince2, CMM, COBit, and others (Anthes, 2004). This report justifies its findings and conclusion with the help of some prominent examples like it says that, Motorola uses CMM very widely and meantime, it developed Six Sigma and them adopted the standards of Malcolm Baldrige. This is clear proof that many companies are now trying to move to the combined approach of different frameworks in their project and service management, especially the combination of the Prince2 project management framework and the ITIL service management framework is amazingly most beneficial and productive.
elivering IT Services Using Prince2, DSDM and ITIL – By Dorothy Tudor, Delivering the IT service using PRINCE2, DSDM and ITIL is a very useful and knowledgeable scholarly article written by Dorothy Tudor in the year of 2007. This article is written to explain that how it is very important and effective to use three different management frameworks to manage the IT estate (Tudor, 2007). The author is a highly expert in the domain of management and holds the position of director in a progressive consultancy and training organization. Her views on the effective management matter a lot in the domain of IT service management and other related fields. In this article (Tudor, 2007) points out the importance of ITSM (Information ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management Technology service management) in the modern industrial world and further investigates the major useful frameworks that can help the effective management of the On the practical side, the author of this article (Tudor, 2007) suggests that the ITIL is very effective and useful for IT service management, while the PRINCE2 framework is very beneficial for any kind of the change in the services or the assets in the shape of a small or large project; thus, PRINCE2 covers the aspect of the entire project management more effectively in parallel with the ITIL framework. Still, there is an additional thing required in a whole process of service and project management that is ‘the focus to achieve the desired business objectives’; the focus on the goals can be effectively achieved with the help of Agile framework. In this way, the IT estate can be effectively managed with the help of three important frameworks like ITIL, PRINCE2 and Agile DSDM (Dynamic System Development Method). This article is very important in the perspective of our current study because it explores the gaps between different frameworks while implementing them. In this study, according to the author (Tudor, 2007), there is a gap between the ITIL and PRINCE2 frameworks when some changes are required in existing services and those changes are implemented with the help of the Prince2 project management framework because PRINCE2 concentrates on the project delivery on time and under the budget limits while gives a little focus on the issues while integrating the project into the existing service system. According to (Tudor, 2007), this gap can be managed with the help of dynamic system development method or DSDM.
ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management In this study the author further justifies her conclusion with the help of a practical approach to implement the three frameworks on the entire life-cycle of an IT application, and also figures out the key areas where these popular frameworks overlap with the each other during the course of the entire life-cycle of the application. These areas are also depicted in the following figure. The report further clarifies how important are the use of these frameworks in collaboration to increase the value and quality of the service and the desired objectives of a successful project.
ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management The report (Tudor, 2007) further explains that PRINCE2 and the DSDM is sufficient for developing a project mandate for an application development project. Both of these frameworks deal with the budget allocation, the objectives of the project and the constitution of the team. If the ITIL is already implemented in the existing service management, then the impact of these frameworks is checked and monitored. This report depicts the entire scenario of the Lifecycle with the hep of working bars, which give a clear picture of the gaps and how they can be filled up. The PRINCE2 develops a project and completes the same effectively and then there is a gap on how to hand over to the ITIL processes to run the services. This gap can also be filled up with the help of ITIL processes and activities mentioned in the stage of ITIL (Service Transition) but two different types of working field will involve, therefore, the DSDM is the most effective way out for filling up this gap. The author suggests that the priority of the processes and the activities can be properly done with the help of the DSDM framework in this entire life-cycle of the service/application; while, the ITIL frameworks can be very useful in two major activities required for secure transition of the services like the backup of the services and the procedures for how to recover the disaster in case of any mishap during the course of the implementation of the newly developed application into the system. For any kind of the change in this process would result in the revision or up gradation of the hardware and the software – the revision of the same falls in the release management and that can be properly fulfilled with the help of the best practices associated with the ITIL framework. The report (Tudor, 2007) further explains that if you look at the figure that shows the overlapping of the processes, it would be very clear that the configuration management and the change management are two very common ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management areas in all above mentioned three frameworks. These both activities are properly supported by the ITIL, the PRINCE2 and the DSDM framework equally.
On the basis of this practical analogy of the project and service management principle, the author (Tudor, 2007) concludes that all three frameworks under consideration are highly reputed and mature ones for the provisioning of effective IT services. A single framework in isolation cannot realize the real benefits of these frameworks, therefore it is very important to have more than one frameworks that are very complimentary to each other in their nature. This study also verifies that the ITIL framework is supportive to the effective and efficient implementation of PRINCE2 project management.
The Intersection of IT Service and Project Delivery – By Mark Thomas,
The tittle of this scholarly presentation based on the professional experience and expertise is ‘ITIL Service life-cycle and the Project Manager: The intersection of IT Service and Project Delivery’. This scholarly presentation was presented to the Kansas City Mid America PMI Chapter in the year of 2011. In this report (Thomas, 2011) suggests that there are some very fundamental intersection between the IT service and the project delivery, which can only be achieved by the implementation of more than two management frameworks available in the marketplace across the global industrial world. In the introduction of this report, the author introduces the major frameworks like ITIL and the PMI to develop the conceptual understanding of the frameworks and then the presenter moves on to the common areas of the same. In this ITIL as a Complimentary Tool for PRINCE-2 Project Management presentation (Thomas, 2011) suggests that the ITIL framework focuses on the main areas like email, incident management, Incident Manager, and Service desk for better and efficient provisioning of the IT service to the customers for producing the value of the services to the customers for the money they spend on purchasing the services.
The report highlights some of the common areas and focuses on these frameworks and then suggest that ITIL is the framework that guides the other project management frameworks like PMBOK and PRINCE2 (PMI and PRINCE2 are have many things and processes common). In this presentation (Thomas, 2011), finally concludes that the ITIL is supportive to the different stages of project management (PMI) like project initiation and planning with Service strategy of the ITIL framework and three ITIL phases (service design, service transition and service operation) are associated with the project execution phase of the project management framework. The CSI phase of the ITIL framework supports project control phase and the service retirement falls in the project closing category. At the end of the presentation (Thomas, 2011), the author points out some important disagreements that are noticed in the between these frameworks.
If we look into the matter in the context of our research thesis, we would be able to understand that there are many areas or the grounds where the project management and the service management are very supportive to each other and they can be used in parallel for achieving the desirable goals with the help of both frameworks more effectively and efficiently.
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